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                prime time 黄金时段

                multiyear 年度

                cord-cutting 掐线(取消有线电视和卫星电视订阅)

                satellite 卫星['sæt?la?t]

                rating 等级['re?t??]

                US media companies hit by viewer switch to online services(449 words)

                By Matthew Garrahan in New York

                A great switch-off is under way on US primetime television with a majority of cable channels losing viewers in 2015,a trend that is reshaping the media landscape and rattling investors.Audience data compiled by Nielsen,the research firm,show that 26 of the top 35 cable channels attracted lower average primetime audiences in 2015 compared with 2014.ESPN,Bravo,Comedy Central and MTV were among those hit.

                “This is a multiyear issue and is leading to lower industry advertising growth,” said Michael Nathanson,a media analyst with Moffett Nathanson. “A business that had been growing in advertising is now struggling.”

                Lower audience ratings and fears about “cord-cutting” — the cancellation of cable and satellite television subscriptions — hit US media shares in 2015 with the S&P 500 Media Index falling 5.5 per cent,far more than the broader market,which was flat for the year.

                Walt Disney,which recently released Star Wars: The Force Awakens ,and AMC Networks,home of The Walking Dead series,are the only media companies to end the year with their shares up on 2014.Disney sparked a sell-off in media stocks this summer when it warned that subscriber growth at its ESPN network had slowed. The channel lost an estimated 3m subscribers in the year to August,said Nielsen.

                Lower average audience ratings for cable networks are indicative of a big shift in viewing habits. Audiences are increasingly using on-demand streaming services,such as Netflix,Amazon and Hulu,rather than tuning in to watch live television. “The world is moving to on-demand viewing,” Mr Nathanson said.

                The Nielsen data include viewings of programmes on digital video recorders up to seven days after their air date. But the ratings do not include views of shows on online services,which has been a point of contention with media chief executives,such as Viacom's Philippe Dauman.

                Nielsen will launch a new measurement system in 2016 that aims to include viewing on alternative services and devices.

                Among the few networks to attract larger average primetime audiences were cable news channels Fox News and CNN. Both benefited this year from the Donald Trump effect,with Republican primary debates setting ratings records for non-sport cable programmes.

                Mr Trump's appearance at the first Republican primary debate propelled Fox to attract four times the viewers that tuned in to watch GOP primary debates in the 2012 election.Ratings for the Republican debates have held up since then,with CNN,CNBC and Fox Business Channel achieving record ratings for the debates they have aired.

                Mr Trump recently asked for a $5m payment from CNN in return for participating in its December debate. The network refused to pay and Mr Trump appeared as scheduled.

                1.How many main cable channels attracted lower average primetime audiences in 2015 compared with 2014?





                [1] 答案

                2.What will be affected by the lower audience ratings as Michael said?

                A.advertising revenue

                B.programme quality


                D.sales volume of TV

                [2] 答案

                3.Which media company is with its shares up on 2014?


                B.AMC NetworkScripps



                [3] 答案

                4.Why Trump asked for a $5m payment from CNN?

                A.advertising fee

                B.adminisstrative expenses

                C.appearance fee

                D.office allowance

                [4] 答案



                [2]答案:A.advertising revenue


                [3]答案:B.AMC NetworkScripps

                解释:股价较2014年上涨的传媒公司只有沃尔特·迪斯尼公司(Walt Disney)和AMC Networks。

                [4]答案:C.appearance fee


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